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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 4 Reproductive Morphology
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Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Reproductive Morphology Text Book Back Questions and Answers
Choose the correct answer
Vexillary aestivation is characteristic of the family …………… .
Gynoecium with united carples is termed as …………… .
(d) none of the above
Aggregate fruit develops from …………… .
(a) multicarpellary, apocarpous ovary
(b) multicarpellary, syncarpous ovary
(c) multicarpellary ovary
(d) whole inflorescence
(a) multicarpellary, apocarpous ovary
In an inflorescence where flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession the position of the youngest floral bud shall be …………… .
A true fruit is the one where …………… .
(a) only ovary of the flower develops into fruit
(b) ovary and calyx of the flower develops into fruit
(c) ovary, calyx and thalamus of the flower develops into fruit
(d) all floral whorls of the flower develops into fruit
(a) only ovary of the flower develops into fruit
Find out the floral formula for a bisexual flower with bract, regular, pentamerous, distinct calyx and corolla, superior ovary without bracteole?
Give the technical terms for the following:
(a) A sterile stamen
(b) Stamens are united in one bunch
(c) Stamens are attached to the petals
(a) A sterile stamen – Staminode
(b) Stamens are united in one bunch – Monadelphous
(c) Stamens are attached to the petals – Epipetalous (petalostemonous)
Explain the different types of placentation for example.
The different types of placentation with an example:
- Marginal: It is with the placentae along the margin of a unicarpellate ovary. Example: Fabaceae.
- Axile: The placentae arises from the column in a compound ovary with septa. Example: Hibiscus, tomato, and lemon.
- Superficial: Ovules arise from the surface of the septa. Example: Nymphaeaceae.
- Parietal: It is the placentae on the ovary walls or upon intruding partitions of a unilocular, compound ovary. Example: Mustard, argemone, and cucumber.
- Free – central: It is with the placentae along the column in a compound ovary without septa. Example: Caryophyllaceae, Dianthus, and primrose.
- Basal: It is the placenta at the base of the ovary. Example: Sunflower (Asteraceae) Marigold.
Differentiate between aggregate fruit with multiple fruits.
1. Aggregate fruit:
Aggregate fruits develop from a single flower having an apocarpous pistil. Each of the free carpels is developed into a simple fruitlet. A collection of simple fruitlets makes an aggregate fruit. An individual ovary develops into a drupe, achene, follicle or berry. An aggregate of these fruits borne by a single flower is known as an etaerio. Example: Magnolia, Raspberry, Annona and Polyalthia.
2. Multiple or Composite fruit: A multiple or composite fruit develops from the whole inflorescence along with its peduncle on which they are borne.
- Sorosis: A fleshy multiple fruit which develops from a spike or spadix. The flowers fused together by their succulent perianth and at the same time the axis bearing them becomes fleshy or juicy and the whole inflorescence forms a compact mass. Example: Pineapple, Jack fruit and Mulberry.
- Syconus: A multiple fruit which develops from hypanthodium inflorescence. The receptacle develops further and converts into fleshy fruit which encloses a number of true fruit or achenes which develops from the female flower of hypanthium inflorescence. Example: Ficus.
Explain the different types of fleshy fruit with suitable examples?
The fleshy fruits are derived from single pistil, where the pericarp is fleshy, succulent and differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. It is subdivided into the following:
- Berry: Fruit develops from bicarpellary or multicarpellary, syncarpous ovary. Here the epicarp is thin, the mesocarp and endocarp remain undifferentiated. They form a pulp in which the seeds are embedded. Example: Tomato, date palm, grapes and brinjal.
- Drupe: Fruit develops from monocarpellary, superior ovary. It is usually one seeded. Pericarp is differentiated into outer skinny epicarp, fleshy and pulpy mesocarp and hard and stony endocarp around the seed. Example: Mango and coconut.
- Pepo: Fruit develops from tricarpellary inferior ovary. Pericarp terns leathery or woody which encloses, fleshy mesocarp and smooth endocarp. Example: Cucumber, watermelon, bottle gourd and pumpkin.
- Hesperidium: Fruit develops from multicarpellary, multilocular, syncarpous, superior ovary. The fruit wall is differentiated into leathery epicarp with oil glands, a middle fibrous mesocarp. The endocarp forms distinct chambers, containing juicy hairs. Example: Orange and lemon.
- Pome: It develops from multicarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovary. The receptacle also develops along with the ovary and becomes fleshy, enclosing the true fruit. In pome the epicarp is thin skin like and endocarp is cartilagenous. Example: Apple and pear.
- Balausta: A fleshy indehiscent fruit developing from multicarpellary, multilocular inferior ovary whose pericarp is tough and leathery. Seeds are attached irregularly with testa being the edible portion. Example: Pomegranate.
Textbook Activity Solved
Prepare a diet chart to provide balanced diet to an adolescent (a school going child) which includes food items (fruits, vegetable and seeds) which are non – expensive and are commonly available.
Diet Chart for an Adolescent:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Reproductive Morphology Additional Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
An eg of cauliflorous inflorescence is
a. Theobroma cocoa
b. Nerium oleander
c. Crotalaria retusa
d. Achyranthus aspera
The coconut water and the edible part of coconut are equivalent to …………… .
Head is a characteristic feature of which family?
Keel is characteristic petal of the flowers of …………… .
Raceme of cymes is traced in
Bracts are modified leaves which bear flowers in their axils. Identify the plant which has a large showy brightly coloured bract …………….
A flower which can be divided into equal vertical halves, by more than one plane of division is …………… .
The largest inflorescence is seen in
a. Cocas Nucifera
d. Phoenix spumbraculifera
c. Corypha umbraculifera
The type of inflorescence seen in Caesalpinia is …………… .
(b) compound corymb
Head is the characteristic of …………… family.
a. A type of inflorescence
b. Sterile Androceium is known as Hypanthium
c. Staminal disc often nectariferous cup-like thalamus
d. Elevated peduncle of the flower
c. Satminal disc often nectariferous cup-like thalamus
Number of whorls in a complete flower is …………….
A monoclinous flower will have …………… .
(c) both androecium & gynoecium
(c) both androecium & gynoecium
Spcrocuclic condition of the arrangement of floral whorls is seen in
a. Solanum nigrum
b. Ocimum sanctum
…………… is a raceme of cymes.
Unit of perianth is …………… .
The number of floral parts per whorl is called …………… .
What is the green cap-like part of brinjal fruit?
Butterfly-shaped corolla is seen in …………… type.
Inflorescence seen in Daucas carota is …………… .
(c) compound umbel
(d) compound corymb
(c) compound umbel
Arrangement of sepals and petals in flower bud is called …………… .
Which is not a part of pistil?
(c) Connective tissue
(c) Connective tissue
The type of calyx in brinjal is …………… .
Sterile stamen is called …………… .
Another name for gynoecium is …………… .
Cavity found inside the ovary is called …………… .
Which part of saffron flower is used as flavouring agent?
If the ovary is inferior, then the flower is …………… .
Fabaceae members show …………… placentation.
The side of the flower facing the mother axis is called as …………… side.
(d) dorsi – ventral
Which of the following option represents calyx?
…………… are the products of pollination & fertilization.
The study of fruits is called…………….
Fruit wall can also be called…………….
Which part of the apple fruit do we eat?
The false septum seen in siliqua fruits is …………… .
The type of fruit in Ricinus in …………… .
Jack fruit is an example for …………… .
Which of the following is not a schizocarpic fruit?
After fertilization …………… modifies into seed.
In groundnuts, which part nourishes the embryo?
…………… are the means for the perpetuation of species.
…………… is the second whorl of the flower.
…………… is a ripened ovule.
Imperfect flowers will have …………… essential whorl(s).
(a) only 1
(a) only 1
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)
Differentiate between Staminode & Pistillode
When stamen or male reproductive part of a flower remains sterile- we call it Staminode
Eg. Female flower of Musa
When gynoecium or female reproductive part of a flower – remain sterle is known Pistillode
Eg. Male flower of Musa
Where does the inflorescence axis arise in the cauliflorous type of inflorescence?
In cauliflorous type, inflorescence developed directly from a woody trunk. Example: Theobroma cocoa.
Name any two mixed inflorescences.
Two mixed inflorescences:
- Thyrsus and
When a flower is said to be complete?
A flower is said to be complete when it has all the four whorls (calyx, corolla, androecium & gynoecium).
Define Schizocarpic fruit.
It is intermediate between dehiscent and indehiscent Instead of dehiscing splits into a number of segments, each containing one or more seeds.
E.g cremocarp, coriander.
A number of floral parts per whorl is called merosity.
What are the 2 positions of Anther dehiscence?
There are 2 types of anther opening relative to the anther of flower.
- Introrse – Anther dehisces towards the centre. E.g dianthus
- Extrorse – Anther dehisces towards the periphery. E.g Argemone
Name the three types of petals in papilionaceous corolla.
The three types of petals in papilionaceous corolla:
- Vexillum (standard)
- wings (alae)
- petals (carina)
What is a staminode? Give example.
Sterile stamen is called staminode. e.g. Cassia
When the pollen grains are fused together as a single man, it is said to be pollinium.
List out the parts of a pistil.
Ovary, style and stigma.
Arrangement of sepals and petals in a floral bud.
What is mother axis?
The branch that bears the flower is called mother axis.
What do you understand by the term “Pomology”?
The branch of horticulture that deals with the study of fruits and their cultivation is called pomology.
How the seeds are classified based on endosperm?
(a) Albuminous seed or Endospermous seed.
(b) Ex – Albuminous seed or non – Endospermous seed.
What is Spathe?
In spadix, entire inflorescence is covered by a brightly colored or hard bract called a spathe.
Differentiate Apocarpous and Syncarpous ovary.
Apocarpous and Syncarpous ovary:
- Apocarpous: A pistil contains two or more distinct carpels. Example: Annona
- Syncarpous: A pistil contains two or more carpels which are connate. Example: Citrus and Tomato
Give examples for the following fruit types:
- Berry: Tomato
- Hesperidium: Orange
III. Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)
Distinguish between Monoecious & Dioecious.
Between Monoecious & Dioecious:
- Monoecious: Both male and female flowers are present in the same plant, e.g., Coconut
- Dioecious: Male and female flowers are present on separate plants, e.g., Papaya
Explain Bilateral symmetry.
In bilateral symmetry, the flower can be divided into equal halves in only one plane. Zygomorphic flowers can efficiently transfer pollen grains to visiting pollinators. Example: Pisum.
Differentiate Apopetalous from Sympetalous.
Apopetalous from Sympetalous:
- Apopetalous (or) Polypetalous: Petals are distinct, e.g., Hibiscus.
- Sympetalous (or) Gamopetalous: Petals are fused, e.g., Datura.
Define Placentation & mention their types.
The mode of distribution of placenta inside the ovary is called placentation. Types of placentation: Marginal, Axile, Superficial, Parietal, Free – central and Basal.
Write the floral formula for the Hibiscus rosasinensis.
What is Parthenocarpic fruit?
Development of fruits without fertilization are called Parthenocarpic fruit. They are seedless fruits. Example: Banana.
From which type of flowers does the aggregate fruit develops?
Aggregate fruits develop from a single flower having an apocarpous pistil. Each of the free carpels develops into a simple fruitlet. A collection of simple fruitlets makes an aggregate fruit.
Classify seeds based on their cotyledons.
Based on the number of cotyledons present, two types of seeds are recognized.
- Dicotyledonous seed: Seed with two cotyledons.
- Monocotyledonous seed: Seed with one cotyledon.
List out any 3 significances of seed.
3 significances of seed:
- The seed encloses and protects the embryo for next generation.
- Seeds of various plants are used as food, both for animals and humans.
- Seeds are the products of sexual reproduction so they provide genetic variations and recombination in a plant.
What is the importance of inflorescence?
Function of the inflorescence is to display the flowers for effective pollination and facilitate seed dispersal. The grouping of flowers in one place gives a better attraction to the visiting pollinators and maximizes the energy of the plant.
Draw the line diagram for the following inflorescence.
(a) Simple Dichasium:
(b) Compound Dichasium:
IV. Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Explain the fixation of anthers.
On the basis of fixation of filament to the anther, there are 4 types
- Basifixed (innate): Filament attached to the base of the anther – E.g. Datura
- Dossifixed: Filament attached to the dorsal side – E.g. Hibiscus
- Versatile: Filament attached to the back of anther at the midpoint – E.g. Grasses
- Adnate: Filament is continued from base to the apex – E.g. Verbena
Explain the different types of flowers based on the position of ovary.
Based on the position of ovary, a flower can be classified as:
- Hypogynous: The term is used for sepals, petals and stamens attached at the base of a superior ovary, e.g. Malvaceae.
- Epihypogynous: The term is used for sepals, petals and stamens attached at the middle of the ovary (half – inferior), e.g. Fabaceae and Rosaceae.
- Epigynous: The term is used for sepals, petals and stamens attached at the tip of an inferior ovary, e.g. Cucumber, apple and Asteraceae.
- Perigynous: The term is used for a hypanthium attached at the base of a superior ovary.
- Epiperigynous: The term is used for hypanthium attached at the apex of an inferior ovary.
Distinguish between true fruit, false fruit & parthenocarpic fruit.
True fruit – Only fertilized ovary of the flower develops into fruit
False fruit – In addition to ovary non-carpellary parts like thalamus, perianth, involucre, and perianth develop into fruit eg. Applejack, English walnut
Parthenocarpic fruit – Development with fertilization and the fruits are seedless.
Define aestivation. Explain its types with examples.
Distinguish between racemose and cymose inflorescence.
- Main axis of unlimited growth
- Flowers arranged in an acropetal succession
- Opening of flowers is centripetal
- Usually the oldest flower at the base of the inflorescence axis.
- Main axis of limited growth
- Flowers arranged in a basipetal succession
- Opening of flowers is centrifugal
- Usually the oldest flower at the top of the inflorescence axis.
Write in detail about head inflorescence.
Head: A head is a characteristic inflorescence of Asteraceae and is also found in some members of Rubiaceae. Example: Neolamarkia cadamba and Mitragyna parvifolia; and in some members of Fabaceae – Mimosoideae, example: Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant). Torus contains two types of florets:
- Disc floret or tubular floret.
- Ray floret or ligulate floret.
Heads are classified into two types:
- Homogamous head: This type of inflorescence exhibits a single kind of florets. The inflorescence has disc florets alone. Example: Vernonia, Ageratum or Ray florets alone. example: Launaea, Sonchus.
- Heterogamous head: The inflorescence possesses both types of florets. Example: Helianthus, Tridax.
Disc florets at the centre of the head are tubular and bisexual whereas the ray florets found at the margin of the head which are ligulate pistilate (unisexual).
Define Merosity and what are its types.
The number of floral parts per whorl is called merosity Perianth merosity is the number of perianth parts per whorl.lt can divided into 2 types
- Isomerous – Same no of perianth parts in different whorls of a flower
- Anisomerous – Each whorl contain a different number of members
- Bimerous – Floral parts into two or multiples of two
- Trimerous – Floral parts into three or multiples of three
- Tetramerou – Floral parts into four or multiples of four
- Pentamerous – Floral parts into five or multiples of five
Draw a flow chart depicting the classification of fruits.
Explain in detail about any two special inflorescences.
The inflorescences do not show any of the development pattern types are classified under a special type of inflorescence.
1. Cyathium: Cyathium inflorescence consists of small unisexual flowers enclosed by a common involucre which mimics a single flower. Male flowers are organized in a scorpioid manner. Female flower is solitary and centrally located on a long pedicel. Male flower is represented only by stamens and female flower is represented only by pistil. Cyathium may be actinomorphic (Example: Euphorbia) or zygomorphic (Example: Pedilanthus) Nectar is present in involucre.
2. Hypanthodium: Receptacle is a hollow, globose structure consisting unisexual flowers present on the inner wall of the receptacle. Receptacle is closed except a small opening called ostiole which is covered by a series of bracts. Male flowers are present nearer to the ostiole, female and neutral flowers are found in a mixed manner from middle below. Example: Ficus sp. (Banyan and Pipal).
V. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs)
Brinjal fruit has persistent calyx. Have you ever noticed the same in any other fruits? Name them.
Tomato, Lady’s finger, guava and chilli also have persistent calyx.
Whether parthenocarpic fruits develop endosperm? Why?
No, parthenocarpic fruits are developed without fertilization, but endosperm will form only after fertilization. So parthenocarpic fruits do not have endosperm.
Ovary develops into fruit after fertilization. While eating an Apple which part do you eat? Explain.
Apple belongs to false fruit. In false fruits, apart from the ovary, non – carpellary parts also develop into fruit. In apple, the thalamus develops into fleshy edible part.
Cremocarp and Carcerulus both are schizocarpic fruits yet they differ. How?
- Fruit develops from syncarpous inferior ovary.
- Ripened fruit split into two, one – seeded segments called mericarps.
- Fruit develops from syncarpous superior ovary.
- Ripened fruit split into four, one – seeded segments called nutlets.
Mango and coconut are ‘drupe’ type of fruits. In Mango, the edible part is fleshy mesocarp. What does the milk of tender coconut represent?
Endosperm is the liquid (milk) potable part of tender coconut, which is rich in nutrients and is formed as a result of triple fusion.
Pick out correct ratio of the male flower to female flower in cyathium inflorescence and explain it?
(a) one : one
(b) one : many
(c) many : many and
(d) many : one.
(a) One : one – Cyathium has single female flower represented by pistil and male flower represented by stamen.
Pollen differs from pollinium. How?
Pollen are microspores which produces male gametes, whereas pollinium refers to the single mass of fused pollen grains.
Sunflower is not a flower – Justify your answer.
Sunflower is actually an inflorescence not a single flower. The inflorescence of the sunflower is a capitulum composed of disc florets and ray florets.
Flower is a modified shoot for reproduction – Give possible evidence.
Modified shoot for reproduction:
- Floral leaves (sepals and petals) are modified leaves.
- Floral and vegetative buds both emerge either in terminal or axillary position.
- Foliage leaves and floral leaves have identical arrangement on stem.
Is tomato a fruit or vegetable? Explain.
Yes, tomato is a fruit. Because it develops from the ripened ovary and bears seeds, whereas vegetable refers to all other plant parts like root, stem and leaves.
What is caruncle? Where it is seen? How it helps the plant?
Caruncle is the fleshy outgrowth at the base of seed. Usually caruncle helps in the seed dispersal, particularly by ants (Myrmecophily).
Both the prefixes (Uni – and Mono -) have the same meaning i.e. one in number. Does it mean that unisexual and monoecious are the same?
That unisexual and monoecious:
- Unisexual refers to the sex of flower (i.e. whether it has anther or carpel).
- Monoecious refers to the plant bearing both the sexes in their flowers.
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