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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science Geography Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Understanding Disaster
Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science Understanding Disaster Textual Evaluation
I. Answer in brief :
- A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society involving human and material loss.
- Disaster is broadly classified into natural and man-made disasters.
What were the subjects taught at Nalanda University?
- Vedic literature
Write a short note on ‘Thunder and lightning’.
- Thunder is a series of sudden electrical discharge resulting from atmospheric conditions.
- This discharge results in sudden flashes of light and trembling sound waves which are commonly known as thunder and lightning.
Highlight the achievement of Guptas in metallurgy.
- The achievement of Guptas in metallurgy was the Mehrauli Iron pillar. King Chandragupta installed it in Delhi.
- This pillar has lasted through the centuries without rusting.
Name the three kinds of tax collected during the Harsha’s reign.
II. Answer in a paragraph:
What is flood? Explains the do’s and don’ts during floods.
(i) An overflow of a large amount of water, beyond its normal limits, especially on the rainfed areas is called a flood.
(ii) During floods – Do’s.
(a) To find out the settlement area whether it is to be affected by flood or not.
(b) Keeping radio, torch and additional batteries, storing drinking water, dry foods items, salt and sugar. Safeguarding materials like kerosene, candle, match box, clothes and valuable things.
(c) Keeping umbrella and bamboo poles.
(d) Keeping first aid box and strong ropes to bind things.
(e) To dig canals from the farm land, to drain the excessive water, keeping sand bags etc.
(iii) During floods – Don’ts.
(a) Try to connect electricity once it is cut.
(b) Operate vehicles.
(c) Swim against floods.
(d) Avoid going on excursions.
(e) Neglect flood warning messages.
Make a flood plan:
On a piece of paper, draw your village/town map roughly. Locate your home, school and playground on the map. Then draw the rivers/stream/lake and road, located nearest to your village/town. Answer the questions listed below.
Which areas and roads would be mostly affected by flood?
- Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when water is supplied by rainfall or snowmelt more rapidly than it can either infiltrate or run off.
- The excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths.
- Surface soil can become saturated, which effectively stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms.
- Infiltration also is slow to negligible through frozen ground, rock, concrete.
- Areas near water bodies such as lake, river, etc. are also affected by flood.
Can you find out evacuation route?
- In order to avoid great losses and fatality affected by flooding, an evacuation route is to be found out.
- A study of non physical mitigation, i.e. to establish some alternatives of evacuation routes to some temporary shelters is to be conducted well in advance.
- A research on the selected several evacuation routes, with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) can be done.
- The research can be conducted by analyzing the flood magnitude, inundation area, population density, settlement concentration, temporary shelter locations, topographic condition and existing road system.
If you live in a flood-prone area, what are the precautionary measures you hav e to take during heavy rains?
- Listen to the weather reports from Radio, TV, etc.
- Do not wait until you see rising water.
- Get out of low areas subject to flooding.
- If driving, do not drive through flooded roadways!
Be prepared to evacuate:
- Identify places to go. .
- Identify alternative travel routes that are not prone to flooding.
Protect your property:
- Move valuables and furniture to higher levels.
- Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch them if you are wet or standing in water.
- Bring outside possessions indoors or tie them down securely.
- Seal vents to basements to prevent flooding.
What are things that you should have in your ‘Go- Kit’ / ‘Drive -away kit’?
‘Go-Kit’ – emergency kit should include some of the following items:
- Drinking water containers.
- Food that does not require cooking.
- Medications and first aid supplies.
- Clothing, Blanket, toiletries.
- Battery-powered radio.
- Extra batteries.
- Important documents: insurance papers, medical records, bank account numbers.
Make a Hst of emergency numbers. (‘Go-kit’-A kit prepared by and for an Individual
or group who expects to develop It in alternative locations during emergency)
The following are the list of Emergency help line telephone numbers:
- Police – 100
- Police SMS – 9500099100
- Fire Service / Rescue Service – 101
- Traffic Police – 103
- Accidents – 100,103
- Traffic Police SMS – 9840000103
- Ambulance Service – 102, 108
- Women Help line – 1091
- Child Help line – 1098
- Emergency & Accidents – 1099
- Senior Citizen Help line – 1253
- Emergency Help line in National Highways – 1033
- Coastal Emergency Help line – 1093
- Blood Bank Emergency Help line – 1910
- Eye Bank Emergency Help line – 1919.
Samacheer Kalvi 6th Social Science Understanding Disaster Additional Questions
I. Fill in the blanks:
- Stampede is a _________ disaster
- Avalanches are_________ disaster.
- The point where an earthquake originate is called its_________
- Volcanoes are_________where lava erupts.
- The waves generated by earthquake and volcanic eruptions are called _________
- A low pressure area which encircled by high-pressure wind is called _________
- Tsunami Early Warning System was established at Hyderabad in _________
- Floods that occur within six hours during heavy rainfall are known as _________
- The lessening of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters is _________
- Rain fed area is primarily supported with _________
- flash floods
- rain water
II. Match the following.
|a)||Social media||(i)||Reducing disaster|
- – iv
- – i
- – v
- – ii
- – iii
III. Choose the correct pair:
a. Floods – (i) Massive waves up to 30 m.
b. Cyclone – (ii) Lava
c. Avalanches – (iii) ice, snow and rock fall
d. Landslide – (iv) Low pressure
(c) Avalanches – iii) ice, snow and rock fall.
Statement I : Do not go to the Coast to watch Tsunami.
Statement II : During floods drink cold water.
Find out the correct option.
a) I & II are correct
b) I & II are wrong
c) I is correct
d) II is correct
(c) I is correct.
Assertion (A) : Man made disasters involve human and material loss.
Reason (R) : The stampede is a sudden rush of a crowd of people, causing
suffocation and trampling.
a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, (R) is gives the correct explanation.
b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not giving the correct explanation of (A)
c) Both (A) and (R) are correct
d) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, (R) is gives the correct explanation
IV. Give short answers to the following questions.
What does the World Disaster Report say?
- The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster Reports recently is that the disasters have increased in frequency and intensity.
- India is one of the most disaster-prone countries of the world.
Explain the terms focus and epicentre.
- The point where an earthquake originate is called its focus.
- The vertical point at the surface from the focus is called epicentre.
What are Volcanoes?
Volcanoes are openings or vents where lava, small rocks and steam erupt on to the Earth’s surface.
Tsunami are waves generated by earthquake, volcanic eruptions and underwater landslides.
Explain the term cyclones.
A low pressure area which encircled by high-pressure wind is called a cyclone.
Mention the types of floods.
a) Flash floods : Such floods that occur within six hours during heavy rainfall.
b) River floods : Such floods are caused by Precipitation over large catchment areas or by melting of snow.
c) Coastal floods : Sometimes floods are associated with cyclone high tides and tsunami.
What are the causes of floods?
Causes of floods are :
- Torrential Rainfall
- Encroachment of the rivers bank
- Excessive rainfalls in rivers catchment.
- Inefficient engineering design in the construction of embankments, dams, and canals.
Mention the effects of floods.
The effects of the floods are :
- Destruction of drainage system
- Water pollution
- Soil erosion
- Stagnation of water
- Loss of agricultural land and cattle
- Loss of life and spread of contagious diseases.
What is Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
Disaster Risk Reduction :
- The practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters.
- There are four key approaches to public awareness for disaster risk reduction.
- Campaigns, participatory learning, informal education, and formal school based interventions.
V. Give brief answers for the following:
Write a paragraph on man made disaster.
- Fire : Massive forest fires may start in hot and dry weather as a result of lightning and human carelessness or from other causal factors.
- Destruction of buildings : Demolition of buildings by human activities.
- Accidents in industries : Chemical, biological accidents that occur due to human error, (e.g.) Bhopal gas tragedy.
- Accidents in Transport : Violation of road rules, carelessness cause accidents
- Terrorism : The social unrest or differences in principles leads to terrorism
- Stampede : The term stampede is a sudden rush of a crowd of people, usually resulting in injuries and death from suffocation and trampling.
What do you know about the society during the Gupta rule?
- The society that adhered to four vama system was patriarchal.
- ‘Manu’ was in force.
- Women should be under the protection of their father, husband or eldest son.
- Polygamy was widely prevalent. The kings and feudatory lords often had more than one wife.
- Sati was practised during the Gupta rule.