# Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 11 Recent Developments in Physics

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## Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 11 Recent Developments in Physics

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### Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Textual Evaluation Solved

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The particle size of ZnO material is 30 nm. Based on the dimension it is classified as
(a) Bulk material
(b) Nanomaterial
(c) Soft material
(d) Magnetic material.
(b) Nanomaterial

Question 2.
Which one of the following is the natural nanomaterial?
(a) Peacock feather
(b) Peacock beak
(c) Grain of sand
(d) Skin of the Whale.
(a) Peacock feather

Question 3.
The blue print for making ultra durable synthetic material is mimicked from-
(a) Lotus leaf
(b) Morpho butterfly
(c) Parrot fish
(d) Peacock feather.
(c) Parrot fish

Question 4.
The method of making nanomaterial by assembling the atoms is called-
(a) Top down approach
(h) Bottom up approach
(c) Cross down approach
(d) Diagonal approach.
(b) Bottom up approach

Question 5.
“Sky wax” is an application of nano product in the field of-
(a) Medicine
(b) Textile
(c) Sports
(d) Automotive industry.
(c) Sports

Question 6.
The materials used in Robotics are-
(a) Aluminium and silver
(b) Silver and gold
(c) Copper and gold
(d) Steel and aluminium.
(d) Steel and aluminum.

Question 7.
The alloys used for muscle wires in Robots are-
(a) Shape memory alloys
(b) Gold copper alloys
(c) Gold silver alloys
(d) Two dimensional alloys.
(a) Shape memory alloys

Question 8.
The technology used for stopping the brain from processing pain is-
(a) Precision medicine
(b) Wireless brain sensor
(c) Virtual reality
(c) Virtual reality

Question 9.
The particle which gives mass to protons and neutrons are-
(a) Higgs particle
(b) Einstein particle
(c) Nanoparticle
(d) Bulk particle.
(a) Higgs particle

Question 10.
The gravitational waves were theoretically proposed by-
(b) Marie Curie
(c) Albert Einstein
(d) Edward Purcell.
(c) Albert Einstein

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Distinguish between Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?
1. Nanoscience:

• Nanoscience is the science of objects with typical sizes of 1 – 100 nm. Nano means one – billionth of a metre that is 10-9 m.
• If matter is divided into such small objects the mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic and other properties change.

2. Nanotechnology:

• Nanotechnology is a technology involving the design, production, characterization, and applications of nano structured materials.

Question 2.
What is the difference between Nano materials and Bulk materials?

1. The solids are made up of particles. Each of the particle has a definite number of atoms, which might differ from material to material. If the particle of a solid is of size less than 100 nm, it is said to be a ‘nano solid’.
2. When the particle size exceeds 100 nm, it is a ‘bulk solid’. It is to be noted that nano and bulk solids may be of the same chemical composition.
3. For example, ZnO can be both in bulk and nano form.
4. Though chemical composition is the same, nano form of the material shows strikingly different properties when compared to its bulk counterpart.

Question 3.
Give any two examples for “Nano” in nature.

1. The scale on the wings of a morpho butterfly contains nano-structures that change the way light waves interact with each other, giving the wings brilliant metallic blue and green hues.
2. Peacock feathers get their iridescent coloration from light interacting with 2-dimensional photonic crystal structures just tens of nanometers thick.

Question 4.

• Robots are much cheaper than humans.
• Robots never get tired like humans. It can work 24 x 7. Hence absenteeism in the workplace can be reduced.
• Robots are more precise and error-free in performing the task.

• Robots have no sense of emotions or conscience.
• They lack empathy and hence create an emotionless workplace.
• If ultimately robots would do all the work, and the humans will just sit and monitor them, health hazards will increase rapidly.

Question 5.
Why steel is preferred in making Robots?

1. Aluminum and steel are the most common metals.
2. But steel is several times stronger.
3. Due to the inherent strength of metal, robot bodies can be made using sheets, bars, rods, channels, and other shapes.

Question 6.
What are black holes?
Black holes are end-stage of stars which are highly dense massive object. Its mass ranges from 20 times mass of the sun to 1 million times mass of the sun. It has very strong gravitational force such that no particle or even light can escape from it. The existence of black holes is studied when the stars orbiting the black hole behave differently from the other starts. Every galaxy has black hole at its center. Sagittarius A* is the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Question 7.
What are subatomic particles?

1. Particles that are smaller than the atom are called subatomic particles.
2. The three main subatomic particles that form an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the applications of Nanomaterials in various fields?
Automotive industry:

1. Lightweight construction
2. Painting (fillers, base coat, clear coat)
3. Coatings for wind-screen and car bodies

Chemical industry:

1. Impregnation of papers
3. Magnetic fluids

Engineering:

1. Wear protection for tools and machines.
2. Lubricant-free bearings

Electronic industry:

1. Data memory
2. Laser Diodes
3. Conductive, antistatic coatings
4. Optical fibres

Medicine:

1. Drug delivery systems
2. Medical rapid tests
3. Prostheses and implants
4. Cancer therapy agents

Textile/fabrics/non-wovens:

1. Surface-processed textiles
2. Smart clothes

Food and drinks:

1. Package materials
2. Storage life sensors
4. Clarification of fruit juices

Household:

1. Ceramic coatings for irons
2. Odors catalyst
3. Cleaner for glass, ceramic, floor, windows

Sports / outdoor:

1. Ski wax
2. Anti-fogging of glass/goggles
3. Antifouling coatings for ships/boats
4. Reinforced tennis rackets and balls

Question 2.
What are the possible harmful effects of usage of Nanoparticles? Why?
Possible harmful effects of usage of Nanoparticles:

1. The research on the harmful impact of application of nanotechnology is also equally important and fast developing. The major concern here is that the nanoparticles have the dimensions same as that of the biological molecules such as proteins. They may easily get absorbed onto the surface of living organisms and they might enter the tissues and fluids of the body.

2. The adsorbing nature depends on the surface of the nanoparticle. Indeed, it is possible to deliver a drug directly to a specific cell in the body by designing the surface of a nanoparticle so that it adsorbs specifically onto the surface of the target cell.

3. The interaction with living systems is also affected by the dimensions of the nanoparticles. For instance, nanoparticles of a few nanometers size may reach well inside biomolecules, which is not possible for larger nanoparticles.

4. Nanoparticles can also cross cell membranes. It is also possible for the inhaled nanoparticles to reach the blood, to reach other sites such as the liver, heart or blood cells.

5. Researchers are trying to understand the response of living organisms to the presence of nanoparticles of varying size, shape, chemical composition and surface characteristics.

Question 3.
Discuss the functions of key components in Robots?
The robotic system mainly consists of sensors, power supplies, control systems, manipulators and necessary software. Most robots are composed of 3 main parts:

1. The Controller: Also known as the “brain” which is run by a computer program. It gives commands for the moving parts to perform the job.
2. Mechanical parts: Motors, pistons, grippers, wheels, and gears that make the robot move, grab, turn, and lift.
3. Sensors: To tell the robot about its surroundings. It helps to determine the sizes and shapes of the objects around, distance between the objects, and directions as well.

Question 4.
Elaborate any two types of Robots with relevant examples?
Human-Robot:
Certain Robots are made to resemble humans in appearance and replicate human activities like walking, lifting and sensing etc.

Power conversion unit:

Actuators:

1. Converts energy into movement.
2. The majority of the actuators produce rotational (or) linear motion.

Electric motors:

1. Actuate the parts of the robots like wheels, arms, fingers, legs, sensors, camera, weapon systems, etc.
2. Different types of motors are used.
3. AC motor, Brushed DC motor, Brushless DC motor, Geared DC motor, etc.

Pneumatic Air Muscles:

1. They are devices that can contract and expand when air is pumped inside.
2. It can replicate the function of a human muscle.
3. They contract almost 40% when the air is sucked inside them.

Muscle wires:

1. They are thin strands of wire made of shape memory alloys.
2. They can contract by 5% when electric current is passed through them.

Piezo Motors and Ultrasonic Motors:
Basically, we use it for industrial robots.

Sensors:
Generally used in task environments as it provides information of real-time knowledge.

Robot locomotion:

1. Legged
2. Wheeled
3. Tracked slip/skid
4. Combination of Legged and Wheeled Locomotion.

(ii) Industrial Robots:
Types of Industrial Robots

1. Cartesian
2. SCARA
3. Cylindrical
4. Delta
5. Polar
6. Vertically articulated

Uses:

1. Welding
2. Laboratory Research
3. Transport
4. Handling hazardous materials like nuclear waste
5. Manufacturing

Question 5.
Comment on the recent advancement in medical diagnosis and therapy.
Virtual reality:

1. It is effectively used to stop the brain from processing pain and cure soreness in the hospitalized patients.
2. Virtual reality has enhanced surgeries by the use of 3D models by surgeons to plan operations.
3. It helps in the treatment of Autism, Memory loss, and Mental illness.

Precision medicine:
Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.

Health wearables:
Medical wearables with artificial intelligence and big data provide an added value to healthcare with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, patient monitoring, and prevention.

Artificial organs:

1. An artificial organ is an engineered device or tissue that is implanted or integrated into a human.
2. It is possible to interface it with living tissue or to place a natural organ.

3D printing:
Advanced 3D printer systems and materials assist physicians in a range of operations in the medical field from audiology, dentistry, orthopedics, and other applications.

### Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Additional Questions

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Nanoscience is the science of objects with a typical size of _______.
a) 1-10 nm
b) 1-100 run
c) 1-1000 nm
d) 1-10000 nm
b) 1-100 nm

Question 2.
The laws of Robotics are ……………..
(a) a robot may not injure a human being
(b) a robot must obey the order given by the human
(c) a robot must protect its own existence
(d) both b and c.
(d) both b and c.
Hint:
A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to be harmed.

Question 3.
When the particle size exceeds 100 nm, it terms a ________.
a) nano solid
b) bulk solid
c) nano & bulk solid
d) nano solid (or) bulk solid
b) bulk solid

Question 4.
What is the name for information sent from robot sensors to robot controllers ……………..
(a) temperature
(b) pressure
(c) feedback
(d) signal.
(c) feedback

Question 5.
Which of the following uses radiofrequency to produce nanoparticles ……………..
(a) Plasma arching
(b) Chemical vapour deposition
(c) Sol-gel technique
(d) Electrodeposition.
(a) Plasma arching

Question 6.
An artificial organ is an engineered ________.
a) device
b) tissue
c) device or tissue
d) device and tissue
c) device or tissue

Question 7.
The diameter of the nanowire is about ……………..
(a) 10-6 m
(b) 10-3 m
(c) 10-8 m
(d) 10-9 m.
(d) 10-9 m.

Question 8.
A suspended nanowire is a wire that is produced in ……………..
(a) Air medium
(b) Vaccum
(c) Low vacuum chamber
(d) High vacuum chamber.
(d) High vacuum chamber.

Question 9.
Quarks interact through _______.
a) electrons
b) gluons
c) protons
d) neutrons
b) gluons

Question 10.
Nanowires are used in ……………..
(a) 10 nm
(b) Resistors
(c) Capacitors
(d) Transducers.
(a) 10 nm

Question 11.
Generally, what is the material of needle electrodes ……………..
(a) Stainless steel
(b) Copper
(d) Iron.
(a) Stainless steel

Question 12.
……………. introduced is used to hold patients head and guide the placements of electrodes.
(a) Monotaxic
(b) Stereotonic
(c) Stereotaxic
(d) Monotonic.
(c) Stereotaxic

Question 13.
Supercomputers and eight telescopes stationed on five continents were used to develop huge data to accomplish this _______.
a) black hole M 84*
b) black hole M 85*
c) black hole M 86*
d) black hole M 87*
d) black hole M 87*

Question 14.
In 1954, ……………. invented the first digitally operated programmable robot called animate.
(a) Edward Purcell
(b) George Devol
(c) Engel Berger
(d) Joliot.
(b) George Devol

Question 15.
Water repellant nano paints are made in lab is ________.
a) Morpho butterfly
b) Peacock feathers
c) Parrotfish
d) Lotus leaf surface
d) Lotus leaf surface

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Short Answer Question

Question 1.
Define Nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is a technology involving the design, production, characterization, and applications of nanostructural materials.

Question 2.
Write down the applications of Nanotechnology?

• Energy storage
• Metallurgy and materials
• Optical engineering and communication
• Agriculture and food
• Biotechnology
• Defense and Security Electronics
• Biomedical and drug delivery
• Cosmetics and paints
• Textile.

Question 3.
What is robotics?
Robotics is an integrated study of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, computer engineering, and science.

Question 4.
Short note on Robotic System.