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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Grammar Tenses
Tenses of verbs are used to express time. They indicate the time and state of the action.
Verbs end with ‘s’ when subject is singular and do not end with ‘s’ when subject is plural in the present tense.
Simple Present : (verb+s/es)
- True in, the present :
- He works in a studio.
- She is sixty years old.
- We live in Chennai.
- I always drink coffee at work.
- He wakes up at 7 a.m. every day.
- They usually eat dinner at home.
General facts/truths :
- The Earth revolves around the Sun.
- The Sun rises in the East.
- Water boils at 100°C.
Future timetables/schedules :
- My train arrives tomorrow.
- We fi y to Paris on Monday.
- Classes begin next week.
Present Continuous: (am/is/are+verb+ing)
Happening now :
It is raining.
I’m eating lunch now.
Fixed plans :
I am meeting my friends after work.’
Temporary actions :
I’m working in New York this week.
More and more people arc using cell phones to access the Internet.
Longer actions in progress now :
She is studying to become a doctor.
He is training for a marathon.
PRESENT PERFECT : (haslhave+past participle)
Action completed in tue immediate past :
We have planned the meeting for next week.
I have joined the duty.
She has completed the home work.
Event in the past at an unspecified time :
She has been to Paris.
I’ve seen that movie.
Duration from the past until now :
He has been a teacher since 2002.
Change over time :
Your English has improved since the last time we met.
My niece has grown a lot in the past year.
Repeated events in the past until now :
We have had four exams so far in this semester.
I’ve been to this restaurant many times since I moved next door.
Series of completed actions :
He sat down, took out a notebook and pen, and started writing.
He entered the room, turned in my direction, and smiled at me.
Habits ¡n the past :
John played the piano when he was a child.
I was good at dancing when I was a teenager.
Complete action in the past :
Sarah baked a cake yesterday.
I went to bed at 10 last night.
We ordered pizza on Friday.
Duration in the past :
He stayed up all night.
We lived in Chicago for a year.
We played baseball all day.
Past Continuous (was/were+verb+ing)
Action before and after a specific time : Yesterday at noon, I was eating lunch.
Interrupted continuous past action : I was watching a movie when she called.
To start a story / create an atmosphere : While I was driving to work yesterday.
Repeated action (often with “always”) : Mutest roommate was always leaving dirty dishes in the sink.
Parallel actions : I was reading while my brother was playing guitar.
Past Perfect (had + past participle)
An action completed before a past action : When we arrived, the class had already begun.
Reported speech : My student said that he hadn’t done his homework.
In the Third Conditional of “if” : If it had rained, I would have bought an umbrella.
A period of time before an event in the : We had owned our house for twenty years before we sold it
Past Perfect Continuous (had+been+verb+ing)
Continued action in the past. before an : He had been waiting for an hour when she finally action in the past arrived.
Cause of something in the past : He went on a diet because he had been eating too much.
“If”- impossible condition : If I had been paying attention, I wouldn’t have got into an accident.
Reported speech : She said that John had been helping her study for months.
Simple Future (shall/will + verb)
wilIingness: (will + verb) :
Someone is at the door. I’ll see who it is. (at the present moment)
I will help you with your homework tonight. (prom Lye/offer)
She won’t tell me her password. (refusal)
Future Fact: (will + verb) : My Mother will get a Foot BaLl today
Plan or Intention (be going to + verb) (Immediate future / Decided future) :
I’m going to watch a movie tonight.
He’s going to have a party this weekend.
It is cloudy. It’s going to rain. (evidence)
You’ll go abroad someday. (opinion)
Future Perfect (shall/will + have been + verb+ing)
Action in progr0ess at a time in the future : She will be taking an exam at 2 p.m. tomorrow, so don’t call her then.
Emphasis of future plans and intentions : They’ll be coming to visit us next week.
interrupted action in the future : I will be waiting for you when you arrive tonight.
Parallel actions ¡n the future :
She will be watching TV, and he will be cooking dinner.
While he cooks dinner, she will be watching TV.
Atmosphere in the future :
When I enter the class, the teacher will be teaching, some students will be taking notes, and my best friend will be trying to stay awake.
Future Perfect (shaHIwiII+ have + past participle)
A completed action before something :
By the time you arrive, I will have finished the in the future project.
By next summer, she will have graduated from college.
Duration before something in the future :
By Friday, she will have had my car for a whole week!
She will have been in Paris for six months by the time she leaves.
Question form :
Do you think you will have finished the project before 1 arrive?
Will she have graduated from college by then?
What will you have done by the end of your time here?
Negati’e statcrnents :
By this time tomorrow, she won’t have had enough time to finish the essay.
By 2020, I won’t have completed my PhD.
Future Perfect Continuous (shaLIJwill + have been + verb+ing)
Cause of something in the future :
Her English will be excellent by the time she visits the U.S. because she will have been studying it for five years.
He will be tired by the time he arrives because he will have been travelling all day.
Duration before something in the future :
He will have been waiting for an hour when she finally arrives.
She will have been working at the company for ten years by the time I retire.
Thus, in English we have twelve different Tenses.
They are —
1. Present Simple – She writes letters.
2. Past Simple – She wrote letters.
3. Future Simple – She will write letters.
4. Present Continuous – She is writing letters.
5. Past Continuous – She was writing letters.
6. Future Continuous – She will be writing letters.
7. Present Perfect – She has written letters.
8. Past Perfect – She had written letters.
9. Future Perfect – She will have written letters.
10. Present Perfect Continuous – She has been writing letters.
11. Past Perfect Continuous – She had been writing letters.
12. Future Perfect Continuous – She will have been writing letters.
List Of Irregular Verbs:
1. Simple Present Tense
The Simple Present Tense is used to express a universal truth or habitual action; as —
1. I like bread.
2. We do our duty.
3. Rahul speaks the truth.
4. The sun rises in the east.
The underlined verbs are all in the Present Simple Tense.
Positive Statements In This Tense :
We use V1 for I, You and a Plural subject; as—
1. We learn our lessons.
2. You pray to God daily. ,
3. They buy milk from this dairy.
We use V1 + s/es for a Singular subject; as—
1. She tells lies.
2. Meena cooks delicious food.
3. Ms Madhu teaches us English.
Negative Statements – do not / does not + V1 verb
You do not obey the rules.
He does not attend the meeting.
She does not dance well.
They do not play now.
Hint: I, we, you, they – do not
He, she, it, singular – does not
Positive Questions – Do / Does + Sub + verb
Do you ask your doubts?
Does he recommend you?
Do they speak English?
Does she prepare meals?
Negative Questions–Do/Does + Sub + not+ V1 verb
Do you not know him?
Do they not participate the program?
Does he not read correctly?
Does she not go to temple today?
2. Past Simple Tense
Past Simple Tense is used to express an action which took place in the past or was completed before the time of speaking; as —
1. Simi liked ice cream.
2. Rohan went to the market.
We use V2 with all subjects (singular as well as plural); as—
1. He worked honestly.
2. They took milk for breakfast.
3. I bought this book last month.
Negative Statement–Did not + V2 verb
1. He did not play Yesterday.
2. They did not buy fruits.
3. She did not go to school.
4. You did not tell the correct answer.
Positive Questions – Did + Sub + V1 Verb
1. Did you attend the meeting?
2. Did they arrange the tour?
3. Did he draw the picture?
4. Did she take part in the fancy dress competition?
Negative Questions–Did + Sub + not+ V2 Verb
1. Did you not sleep well yesterday?
2. Did they not go to their native place?
3. Did she not speak to him?
4. Did he not bring the flowers?
3. Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous Tense is used to express an action that is going on at the time of speaking; as–
1. Radha is doing her homework.
2. Mona is cooking food in the kitchen.
The underlined words denote an action that is going on at present.
So we can say these sentences are in the Present Continuous Tense.
In this tense, we use is/am/are + Vj–ing :
1. I am going there.
2. He is doing his work.
3. They are digging a well.
We use is/am/are + not + Vj–ing :
1. I am not going there.
2. He is not doing his work.
3. They are not digging a well.
We put the helping verb before the Subject; as —
1. Am I going there?
2. Is he doing his work?
3. Are they digging a well?
we can put ‘not’ before the main verb or in short form after the helping verb, as—
1. Is he not doing his work?
Isn’t he doing his work?
2. Am I not going there?
Ain’t I going there?
(We use ain’t in spoken language only.)
3. Are they not digging a well?
Aren’t they digging a well?
4. Past Continuous Tense
The Past Continuous Tense is used to express an action which was actually taking place at some particular moment in the past.
We use was/were + V1–ing; as —
1. He was reading a book.
2. They were going to the market.
We use was/were + not + V1–ing; as —
1. He was not reading a book.
2. They were not going to the market.
We put the helping verb before the subject; as —
1. Was he reading a book?
2. Were they going to the market?
we can put ‘not’ before the main verb or in short form after the helping verb; as —
1. Was he not reading a book?
Wasn’t he reading a book?
2. Were they not going to the market?
Weren’t they going to the market?
(i) Rewrite each sentence using the Past form of the given verbs :
1. Rahul ______________ (want) a shirt.
Rahul wanted a shirt.
2. Deepa ______________ (eat) an ice cream.
Deepa ate ice cream.
3. Nancy ______________ (wear) simple clothes.
Nancy wore simple clothes.
4. Raj ______________ (come) to India in March.
Raj came to India in March.
5. They ______________ (build) a house in Delhi.
They built a house in Delhi.
6. The boys ______________ (laugh) at the beggar.
The boys laughed at the beggar.
7. I ______________ (go) to the market with my friend.
I went to the market with ni find.
8. My mother ______________ (buy) a new dress for me.
Ms mother bought a new dress for ‘NC.
(ii) Rewrite each sentence as a Negative
1. Misha told the truth.
Aisha did not tell the truth.
2. He took my pen.
He did not take ms pen.
3. Tony polished his shoes’’
Tony did not polish his shoes,
4. She cooked food for me.
She did not cook food for me,
5. Rohan respected his friends.
Rohan did not respect his friends.
6. They finished their work in time.
They did not finish their work in time.
7. The naughty boys broke the glass.
The naughty boys did not break the glass.
8. Ranjan and his friends went for a picnic.
Ranjan and his friends did not go for a picnic.
(iii) Use the Present Continuous Tense to complete each sentence :
1. Mona ______________ (take) a test.
Mona is taking a test
2. I ______________ (have) my breakfast.
I am having my breakfast.
3. The hunter ______________ (kill) the lion.
The hunter is killing the lion.
4. The trees ________ (shed) their leaves.
The trees are shedding their lines.
5. The farmers ______________ (water) their fields.
The farmers are wtering their fields.
6. The pain in my arm ________ (get) worse.
The pain in an arm is getting worse.
7. The tailors (not stitch) the uniforms.
The tailors are not stitching the uniforms.
(iv) Complete each sentence using the Past Continuous Tense :
1. Children ______________ (hide) in the bushes.
Children were hiding in the bushes.
2. They ______________ (walk) through the zoo.
They were walking through the zoo.
3. The waiter ______________ (server) the people.
The waiter was serving the people.
4. Meera ______________ (not play) with her friends.
Meera was not playing with her friends.
5. The baby ______________ (not cry) all the morning.
The baby was not crying all the morning.
6. The dancers ______________ (not perform) on the stage.
The dancers were not performing on the stage.
(v) Use Simple Past form of the given verb to complete each sentence:
1. Did you ______________ (enjoy) this film?
Did you enjoy this film?
2. Did Rama ______________ (paint) this picture?
Did Rama paint this picture?
3. Columbus ______________ (discover) America in 1492.
Columbus discovered America in 1492.
4. She ______________ (go) to her village last month.
She went to her village last month.
5. The peon ______________ (not ring) the bell in time.
The peon did not ring the bell in time.
6. The fool didn’t (learn) from experience.
The fool didn’t learn from experience.
(vi) Use Simple Present form of the given verbs to complete each sentence :
1. I ______________ (go) for a walk daily.
I go for a walk daily.
2. The sun ______________ (rise) in the east.
The sun rises in the east.
3. They ______________ (not like) bad workers.
They don’t like bad workers.
4. Kusha ______________ (not obey) her parents.
Kusha doesn’t obey her parents.
5. Teachers ______________ (love) good students.
Teachers love good students.
6. We ______________ (take) milk and eggs for breakfast.
We take milk and eggs for breakfast.
(vii) Rewrite each sentence in Simple Past Tense :
1. The bird flies to its nest.
The bird flew to its nest.
2. They drink coffee every day.
They drank coffee every day.
3. Does he pay his fees regularly?
Did he pay his fees regularly?
4. Do you have milk for breakfast?
Did you have milk for breakfast?
5. Do we not fall ill by over–eating?
Did we not fall ill by over–eating?
6. You do not finish your work in time.
You did not finish your work in time.
7. Kusha does not wear simple clothes.
Kusha did not wear simple clothes.
8. poes he not help his friends in need?
Did he not help his friends in need?
(viii) Rewrite each sentence in Past Continuous Tense :
1. Isn’t it raining heavily?
Wasn’t it raining heavily?
2. We are waiting for the bus.
We were waiting for the –bus.
3. The teacher is teaching the children.
The teacher was teaching ‘ the children.
4. I am not living with my aunt these days.
I was not living with my aunt these days.
5. They are not going home in the evening.
They were not going home in the evening.
6. Is the lady knitting a sweater for her son?
Was the lady knitting a sweater for her son?
7. Aren’t Anu and Manu playing in the street?
Weren’t Anu and Manu playing in the street?
8. Am I wasting my time in watching Discovery Channel?
Was I wasting my time in watching Discovery Channel?
(ix) Rewrite each sentence in Present Continuous Tense :
1. Do you not speak the truth?
Are you not speaking the truth?
2. The students ask many questions.
The students are asking many questions.
3. I sit on the front bench in my class.
I am sitting on the front bench in my class.
4. Does Kamala teach dance and music?
Is Kamala teaching dance and music?
5. These boys do not respect their elders.
These boys are not respecting their elders.
6. She does not. play with the poor children.
She is not playing with the poor children.
(x) Rewrite each sentence in Past Continuous Tense :
1. The girls did not pluck flowers.
The girls were not plucking flowers.
2. Did the peon not ring the bell?
Was the peon not ringing the bell?
3. Did Ram break the windowpanes?
Was Rain breaking the windowpanes?
4. My friends talked to me in English.
My friends were talking to me in English.
5. The watchman did not open the gate.
The watchman was not opening the gate.
6. He spent all his money in good deeds.
He was spending all his money in good deeds